We have had a few long or rather very long topics in the previous chapters. Below is a quick recap of what we learnt in the previous chapters:
Stack and Heap:
• Local variables live in the stack
• Objects and their instance variables live on the heap
Literals and Primitive Casting:
• Integer literals can be decimal, octal or hexadecimal
• Literals for Longs end with either l or L
• Float literals end with F or f
• Double literals end with D or d
• The Boolean literals are true and false
• Literals for chars are a single character inside single quotes ‘’
Scope of Variables:
• Scope refers to the lifetime of a variable
• There are four basic scopes:
o Static variables live as long as the class lives
o Instance variables live as long as the object lives
o Local variables live as long as their method is on the stack
o Block variables live until the code block completes
• Literal integers are implicitly ints
• Integer expressions always result in an int-sized result
• Floating point numbers are implicitly doubles
• Narrowing a primitive truncates the higher order bits
• Compound assignments (Ex: +=) perform an automatic cast
• Reference variables can refer to the subclass of the declared type but never a super class
• When a new object is created three things happen:
o A new reference variable gets created
o A new object gets created
o The new created object gets assigned to the reference variable
Using Variables – Initialization and Unassigned Variables:
• When an array of objects is instantiated, objects within the array are not instantiated automatically, but all the references get the default value of null.
• When an array of primitives is instantiated, elements get default values.
• Instance variables are always initialized with a default value.
• Local/automatic/method variables are never given a default value. If you attempt to use one before initializing it, you’ll get a compiler error.
Passing Variables to Methods:
• Methods can take primitives and/or object references as arguments.
• Method arguments are always copies.
• Method arguments are never actual objects (they can be references to objects).
• A primitive argument is an unattached copy of the original primitive.
• A reference argument is another copy of a reference to the original object.
• Shadowing occurs when two variables with different scopes share the same name. This leads to hard-to-find bugs, and hard-to-answer exam questions.
Array Declaration, Construction, and Initialization
• Arrays can hold primitives or objects, but the array itself is always an object.
• When you declare an array, the brackets can be left or right of the name.
• It is never legal to include the size of an array in the declaration.
• You must include the size of an array when you construct it (using new) unless you are creating an anonymous array.
• Elements in an array of objects are not automatically created, although primitive array elements are given default values.
• You’ll get a NullPointerException if you try to use an array element in an object array, if that element does not refer to a real object.
• Arrays are indexed beginning with zero. An ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException occurs if you use a wrong index value.
• Arrays have a length variable whose value is the number of array elements.
• The last index you can access is always one less than the length of the array.
• Multidimensional arrays are just arrays of arrays.
• The dimensions in a multidimensional array can have different lengths.
• An array of primitives can accept any value that can be promoted implicitly to the array’s declared type;. e.g., a byte variable can go in an int array.
• An array of objects can hold any object that passes the IS-A (or instanceof) test for the declared type of the array. For example, if Horse extends Animal, then a Horse object can go into an Animal array.
• If you assign an array to a previously declared array reference, the array you’re assigning must be the same dimension as the reference you’re assigning it to.
• You can assign an array of one type to a previously declared array reference of one of its supertypes. For example, a Honda array can be assigned to an array declared as type Car (assuming Honda extends Car).
• Static initialization blocks run once, when the class is first loaded.
• Instance initialization blocks run every time a new instance is created. They run after all super-constructors and before the constructor’s code has run.
• If multiple init blocks exist in a class, they follow the rules stated above, AND they run in the order in which they appear in the source file.
• The wrapper classes correlate to the primitive types.
• Wrappers have two main functions:
o To wrap primitives so that they can be handled like objects
o To provide utility methods for primitives (usually conversions)
• The three most important method families are
o xxxValue() Takes no arguments, returns a primitive
o parseXxx() Takes a String, returns a primitive, throws Number Format Exception
o valueOf() Takes a String, returns a wrapped object, throws NFE
• Wrapper constructors can take a String or a primitive, except for Character, which can only take a char.
• Radix refers to bases (typically) other than 10; octal is radix = 8, hex = 16.
• As of Java 5, boxing allows you to convert primitives to wrappers or to convert wrappers to primitives automatically.
• Using == with wrappers created through boxing is tricky; those with the same small values (typically lower than 127), will be ==, larger values will not be ==.
• Primitive widening uses the “smallest” method argument possible.
• Used individually, boxing and var-args are compatible with overloading.
• You CANNOT widen from one wrapper type to another. (IS-A fails.)
• You CANNOT widen and then box. (An int can’t become a Long.)
• You can box and then widen. (An int can become an Object, via an Integer.)
• You can combine var-args with either widening or boxing.
• In Java, garbage collection (GC) provides automated memory management.
• The purpose of GC is to delete objects that can’t be reached.
• Only the JVM decides when to run the GC, you can only suggest it.
• You can’t know the GC algorithm for sure.
• Objects must be considered eligible before they can be garbage collected.
• An object is eligible when no live thread can reach it.
• To reach an object, you must have a live, reachable reference to that object.
• Java applications can run out of memory.
• Islands of objects can be GCed, even though they refer to each other.
• Request garbage collection with System.gc();
• Class Object has a finalize() method.
• The finalize() method is guaranteed to run once and only once before the garbage collector deletes an object.
• The garbage collector makes no guarantees, finalize() may never run.
• You can uneligibilize an object for GC from within finalize().
Previous Chapter: Chapter 21 - Garbage Collection
Next Chapter: Self Test - Chapters 15 to 21
Thursday, February 3, 2011
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